A nation, region, city or organization today needs information technology capabilities as a foundational segment of its digital infrastructure policy, which is necessary for its/their economies and quality of life of a modern ‘digital’ nation. Digital technologies that include the internet as the backbone, providing the foundation for an organization’s information and operational technology. Mobile telecom and digital communications suites, including applications (apps), data centres and networks are all integral components. Globally, over 50 billion products are connected via the internet, making it easier for cybercriminals to penetrate products, devices and all forms of mobility.
Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the billions of physical devices around the world that are connected to the internet. Data is being collected and shared every micro-second, and the volume of data being generated is rapidly growing. By connecting these devices together and adding sensory technology, to help them communicate and share data, provides a level of intelligence to otherwise dumb technology. Real-time data being transferred is becoming the fabric of the world, and foundational to the growth of autonomy and smart cities. Privacy, security and cyber safety becomes paramount on this ‘moving target’. As 5G, IoT and mobility deployments begin to scale in this decade, mobile security will become a larger issue. Downtime and loss of data will become more common and prevalent.
Intelligent Transportation Systems Transportation is becoming more connected, exchanging information and data in real-time, with infrastructure and mobility in its surroundings. These efforts in are to make for a safer. efficient and more secure ecosystem. Protecting these new digital ecosystems from malicious attacks, unauthorized access, and data privacy become pivotal within ITSs. End-to-end security in system architecture, to protect data traveling throughout these connected digital highways.
Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) technology is the foundation of tomorrow’s connected mobility ecosystem. Since this technology has a promising and foreseen impact on both public safety and the economic growth of the transportation sector. Key players in this new mobility ecosystem are the automotive, telecommunication, infrastructure and transportation industries. Mobility is becoming ever more connected to other mobility on the road to stay informed about the latest information for safe navigation. Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication enables connectivity among the vehicles and nearby infrastructure, which improves the accuracy of safety-related alerts and introduces a new set of safety warnings that were not previously possible with ADAS. It will also communicate to nearby transportation infrastructure to receive current traffic updates and download the latest maps. These communication services will increase road safety by preventing accidents using alerts and warnings for drivers. Also, V2X will significantly improve traffic management by introducing real-time traffic updates. Vehicle Safety Communication (VSC) technologies are built on IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609 standards. Cybersecurity is an increasingly urgent issue for the automotive industry as the systems are getting complex with technological advancements such as high-automated & autonomous driving and V2X communications.
Bringing computing power and data storage back from the cloud to local devices. Unlike personal computers and ‘dumb’ terminals of the recent past, these internet-enabled devices are more numerous and diverse, with the vast majority being permanently connected to the internet. Edge computing represents a fusion of cloud and local computing in which the cloud retained for carrying and storing data while local internet-connected devices are designed to take care of data processing. Some are predicting that by 2022 some three-quarters of enterprise data will be processed outside the cloud. Why Edge computing? Speed. Latency of 20-40ms is typical for cloud-hosted applications. Possible delays caused by interference, outdated protocols when data processing takes place remotely. Edge computing does not have rerouting issues and could be seen as a leading technology for autonomous mobility. Having data processed locally while retaining the cloud as a way to transmit and store data might mean we no longer worry about things like updates and maintenance with remote systems but could place mobility in a precarious situation regarding privacy and security. The combination of cloud and edge computing; an expanded attack surface could mean sensitive data is more vulnerable. Expanding security capabilities to all edge devices, including encryption of data and possibly running control through a centralized management dashboard. Other possible solutions to protecting edge devices on/offline should include secure microcontroller integrated circuit (IC). These cryptographic microcontrollers allow manufacturers to create their own certification authority (CA).
An on-demand resource, predominantly used for data storage (cloud storage) and computing power. These data centres are accessible over the internet and provide agility, cost reductions when compared to in-house servers, and low cost of maintenance. Multiple cloud service providers like Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Amazon Web Services (AWS) offer cloud infrastructure for organizations to use cloud computing technology to build, deploy and migrate to cloud-base environments. Top cybersecurity challenges in the cloud are data loss, data privacy, accidental leakage of credentials and compliance issues. Data encryption in the cloud is essential, along with carrying out routine penetration testing, and multi-factor authentication. Mobility is and will continue to use the benefits of data transferring and storage of the cloud, but as mentioned in the Edge Computing section, a hybrid model might be best suited for mobility.
Why Autonomous? To drastically reduce human error fatal accidents. In March 2021, Honda announces its legend as the first SAE level 3 autonomous passenger vehicle. The German company, Volocopter has developed and will be launching its autonomous eVTOL (electric vertical take-off and landing) drone taxis in Singapore, in 2023. Connected vehicle technology can be found on multiple mobility platform sector vehicles and the push towards autonomy is both inevitable and here today! Cyber risks associated with the connected and autonomous features on mobility can include connectivity risks, allowing hackers to access the onboard ECUs. The vulnerable open-source code on legacy software found on vehicles. Automation risks through the multitudes of sensors found on vehicles are also possible attack vectors. SAE level 4 and higher, when driver intervention is no longer a factor, will see legislative changes to existing tort and liability regimes. The legal liability of an accident or incident involving the laws of a nation, will for the first time in history see the liability shift from the perceived ‘owner’ of the vehicle to a brand new entity. Gaps: Public policy and legal ‘vehicles’ around liability are both playing catch-up behind the pace of technology advancement.
Cybersecurity is a multi-disciplinary joining of computer science, law, economics and engineering. Today it impacts every facet of modern life from electricity that powers millions of businesses and homes to the transportation network that moves millions of people daily. The number and uses for connected devices continues to grow, the complexity of cyber infrastructure grows exponentially…and so does the vulnerabilities. We need to defend these digital and physical networks. Developing an adequate cybersecurity workforce for all segments and sectors, remains a critical shortcoming for companies and nations. A new solution to revamp traditional education and policies, to develop a robust cybersecurity workforce. Organizations in 2021 face severe challenges recruiting the talent they need to protect their systems from cybersecurity threats.